Paediatric Ophthalmology and Squint Services

For diagnosis and treatment of various eye disorders in children.

Over half of the world's blind children live in India alone. Approximately 24% of childhood blindness in India is attributable to retinal causes. Whereas cataract and malnutrition related blindness have received the attention of both governmental and non-governmental eye-care providers, retinal causes are not a priority issue. This is despite the fact that perhaps the most devastating causes of blindness stems from retinal diseases. The growing numbers of premature infants surviving in India today have resulted in an epidemic rise of diseases such as Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP).This needs urgent attention.

At Jeevan Jyoti Netralya, we take special interest in the field. After having been set-up in 2012, this department has expanded its wings to provide comprehensive care to all sections of society.

  • visual acuity screening systems applicable to all age groups, pre verbal and pre school inclusive [Teller acuity charts, ].
  • Fixation targets for distance and near & accommodative near targets.
  • Prisms (Fresnel prisms, Luneau loose and prism bars).
  • Worth Four dots Test torch for near and distance.
  • Bagolini's glasses.
  • Stereoacuity charts (Titmus Fly test, Random dot test, Lang's test).
  • Neutral density bar.
  • Color vision charts (Ishiara's pseudoisochromatic test).
  • Correction of vertical and horizontal squints.
  • Enucleation with implants and a comprehensive management of retinoblastomas (like cryotherapy, TTT, chemotherapy).
  • Childhood eye injuries.
  • Minor procedures like foreign body removal and chalazion etc.


Retinopathy of prematurity is a condition that affects premature babies. Caused by disorganized blood vessel growth in the eyes, in the worst cases, patients will suffer from permanent blindness. Studies show that approximately 16 percent of allpremature babies will develop Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

If your baby is diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), you may be entitled to seek compensation for your losses. Our birth injury lawyers have extensive experience in handlingRetinopathy of prematurity (ROP) lawsuits and are equipped with the knowledge and the resources to conduct thorough investigations on behalf of parents and infants who have been affected by the condition. For more information about your options, call (800) 887-8142 or send us an email and a qualified Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) attorney will contact you shortly.

Causes of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a condition in which abnormal blood vessel growth in a baby's eyes causes scarring in ocular tissues, vision impairment and, in the worst cases, blindness. Infants most likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) include those who experience:

  • bleeding in the brain
  • concurrent ailments
  • high carbon dioxide levels in the body
  • irregular breathing when sleeping (apnea)
  • low birth weights (born less than 3.3 pounds)
  • low levels of iron in the blood (anemia)
  • mechanical ventilation treatment
  • premature birth (born less than 32 weeks into pregnancy)
  • seizures
  • slow heart rate (bradycardia)
  • undergoing blood transfusions

Additionally, a pregnant mother's condition and/or behavior may increase the likelihood that newborns develop retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Maternal factors include:

  • heavy smoking during pregnancy
  • gestational diabetes
  • preeclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy)

How Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Develops

The last 12 weeks of pregnancy are a vital time for the development of eye nerves and tissues. So, when babies are born prematurely, their ocular blood vessel growth progresses abnormally and/or stops altogether.
In some cases, a disruption in the development of eye tissue will cause the body to start producing scar tissue within the eyes. If this scar tissue contracts, it can detach the retina from the eye's inner tissues, resulting in retinopathy of prematurity.
Other causes of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can include:
• exposure to pure oxygen or toxins following birth
• inadequate levels of oxygen during pregnancy
• slow or delayed fetal development in the uterus

Medical Mistakes that Cause Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

Tragically, healthcare professionals can make mistakes that cause or worsen a baby's case of retinopathy of prematurity. Possible malpractice contributing to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)may include (but aren't limited to):
• exposing newborns to toxins
• failing to provide necessary eye exams to high risk infants
• failing to diagnose ROP when symptoms of this condition are clearly present
• failing to promptly or adequately treat retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
• using of oxygen therapy excessively or improperly following birth

Information about Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

As a condition that affects premature babies, retinopathy of prematurity occurs when blood vessels in the eyes grow in a disorganized manner and cause scarring of the eye tissue.
In milder cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), ocular blood vessels may correct their own abnormal growth, causing the condition to clear up spontaneously. However, in the most serious cases, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can cause blindness.
Retinopathy of prematurity was previously referred to as retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) and was first described in medical literature during the early 1940s.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Causes

A baby's primary ocular blood vessels, particularly the ones that connect the optic nerve to the retina, grow during the last three months of pregnancy.
Consequently, when infants are born prematurely, growth of these blood vessels stops, and scar tissue may develop. If this scar tissue contracts, it will pull on the retina, causing it to detach from the inner layers of the eye.
Additional causes of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may include:
• exposure to pure oxygen or toxins following birth
• inadequate levels of oxygen during pregnancy
• slow or delayed fetal development in the uterus

Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity

Infants born less than 32 weeks into pregnancy, as well as those born under 3.3 pounds, have the highest risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity.
Additional risk factors for Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) include:
• anemia
• bleeding in the brain ailments
• high carbon dioxide levels in the body
• irregular breathing when sleeping
• mechanical ventilation treatment
• seizures
• slow heart rate
• undergoing blood transfusions

Similarly, mothers' conditions and/or behaviors during pregnancy may increase infants' risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Maternal factors may include:
• gestational diabetes
• heavy smoking during pregnancy
• high blood pressure during pregnancy

The best way to reduce an infant's risk of ROP is to follow through with quality prenatal care.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) Diagnosis and Treatment

Babies identified with a high risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (i.e. those with a number of risk factors present) will be closely monitored following birth. Ophthalmologists will first examine an infant within the first 5 weeks of birth—precisely when this exam occurs will depend on how prematurely the infant is born.
Subsequently, eye exams will occur every six months to monitor a baby's condition.
As with most conditions, the earlier a retinopathy of prematurity diagnosis is made and treated, the less severe the condition is likely to be. Depending on the severity of an infant's retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), treatment options may include:
• cyrotherapy, freezing retinal tissues
• laser therapy
• scleral buckling, a surgery in which ophthalmologists place a band around the eye to hold the retina to the eye's inner layers
• prescription eyewear, including glasses or contact lenses, for life
• assistive technologies, such as special computer programs or voice-activated equipment, for those with severe loss of vision or total blindness